[Nutrient Requirements of Swine: Eleventh Revised Edition |The National Academies Press
Nrc swine 2012 free download require a number of essential смотрите подробнее to meet their needs for maintenance, growth, reproduction, lactation, and other functions.
The National Research Council NRCin its publication, Nutrient Requirements of Swine updated inprovides estimates of the amounts of these nutrients for various classes of swine under average conditions. However, factors such as genetic variation, environment, availability of nutrients in feedstuffs, disease levels, and other stressors may increase the needed level of some nutrients for optimal performance and reproduction.
The NRC uses a modeling approach to take some of these factors into consideration in its estimates of requirements for energy, amino acids, calcium, and phosphorus, but requirements for other minerals and vitamins are estimated strictly from empirical data.
Although the NRC addresses factors such as lean growth rate, gender, energy density of the diet, environmental temperature, crowding, parity, stage of gestation, and various measures of sow productivity when estimating nutrient requirements, nutritionists, feed manufacturers, veterinarians, or swine producers may wish to include higher levels of certain nutrients than those listed by the NRC to ensure adequate intake nrc swine 2012 free download nutrients and for insurance purposes.
Any negative effects from oversupplementing diets are generally minimal except in cases of extreme imbalance. Swine require six general classes of nutrients: water, carbohydrates, fats, protein amino acidsminerals, and vitamins.
Energy, although not a specific nutrient, is an nrc swine 2012 free download nutritional component and is primarily derived from the oxidation of carbohydrates and fats. Antibiotics, chemotherapeutic agents, microbial supplements prebiotics and probioticsenzymes, and other feed additives are often added to swine diets to increase the rate and efficiency of gain, to improve digestibility, and for other purposes, but they are not considered nutrients.
The nrc swine 2012 free download concentrations listed in the NRC tables are based on a given amount of feed intake; if intake is less than the amount listed, the dietary concentration may need to be increased to ensure an adequate daily intake of the nutrients. Pigs should have free and convenient access to water, beginning before weaning. The amount required varies with age, type of feed, environmental temperature, status of lactation, fever, high urinary output as from high salt or protein intakeor diarrhea.
Lactating sows consume more water because of the high water content of the milk they produce. Water restriction reduces performance and milk production and may result in death if the restriction is severe.
Water quality is important. Water should be relatively free of microbial contamination; if not, chlorination may be necessary. Excessive minerals in water may create problems.
Energy requirements are expressed as kilocalories kcal of digestible energy DEmetabolizable energy MEor net energy NE. DE and ME values are used most commonly, but there is a trend in the industry to formulate diets on the basis of NE.
Energy requirements of pigs are influenced by their weight which influences the maintenance requirementtheir genetic capacity for lean tissue growth or milk production, and the environmental temperature at which they are housed. The amount of feed consumed by growing pigs allowed to consume feed ad lib is controlled principally by the energy content of the diet.
If the energy density of the diet is increased by including supplemental fat, voluntary feed consumption decreases. Pigs fed such a diet generally will gain faster, and efficiency of gain will improve, but carcass fat may increase. Amino acids, normally supplied by dietary protein, ссылка на подробности required for maintenance, muscle growth, development of fetuses and supporting tissues in gestating sows, and milk production in lactating sows.
Of the 22 amino acids, 12 are synthesized by the animal; the other 10 must be provided in the diet for normal growth. The 10 dietary essential amino acids for swine are arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine. Cystine and tyrosine can meet a portion of the requirement for methionine and phenylalanine, respectively.
The dietary lysine requirement during the early starter phase is quite high 1. The requirement continues to decrease throughout the growing-finishing stage from 1. The amino acids of greatest practical importance in diet formulation ie, those most likely to be at deficient levels are lysine, tryptophan, threonine, and methionine. Nrc swine 2012 free download, the basic grain in most swine diets, is markedly deficient in lysine and tryptophan.
The other principal grains for pigs grain sorghum, barley, and wheat are low in lysine and threonine. The first limiting amino acid in soybean meal is methionine, but sufficient amounts are provided when soybean meal is combined with cereal grains into a nrc swine 2012 free download diet that meets the lysine requirement.
An exception might be in young pigs that consume diets with high levels of soybean meal or diets containing dried blood products low in the sulfur-amino acids.
Milk protein is well balanced in essential amino acids but usually is too expensive to be used in swine diets, except nrc swine 2012 free download very young pigs. Dried whey, commonly used in starter diets, contains protein with an excellent profile of amino acids, but the total protein content nrc swine 2012 free download whey is low.
Diets based on corn and animal-protein nrc swine 2012 free download eg, meat meal, meat and bone meal are inferior to corn-soybean meal diets, but they can be improved significantly by adding tryptophan or supplements that are good sources of tryptophan.
Animal proteins are also good sources of minerals and B-complex vitamins. Diets formulated for early weaned pigs that contain high levels of dried nrc swine 2012 free download plasma or dried blood cells may be deficient in methionine.
However, high levels of methionine can depress growth, so methionine should not be added indiscriminately to diets. Supplemental valine may be of value in corn-soybean meal diets fed to lactating sows, but it is still too expensive to be considered as a nrc swine 2012 free download supplement.
Lysine is generally the first limiting amino acid in almost all practical diets, so if diets are formulated on a lysine basis, the other amino acid requirements should be met. A general rule of thumb is that crude protein content can be reduced by 2 percentage points and the diet supplemented with 0. Additionally, it is becoming more popular to formulate swine diets on the basis of standardized or true or apparent digestible amino acids.
This method is particularly advantageous when substantial amounts of byproduct feeds are included in the diet. These nutritional посетить страницу источник have many important functions in the body. Although used primarily in skeletal nrc swine 2012 free download, calcium and phosphorus play important metabolic roles in the body and are essential for all stages of growth, gestation, and lactation.
The NRC estimates requirements of 0. The requirements are higher for younger pigs and lower for finishing pigs, but the ratios of calcium:phosphorus are approximately the same for all weight groups. These levels are adequate for maximal growth rate and efficiency of gainbut they do not allow for maximal bone mineralization. Generally, maximal bone ash and strength can be achieved by including 0.
The higher requirements during late gestation are attributed to rapid development of the fetuses. Swine producers may choose to feed slightly higher levels to sows to ensure adequacy of these minerals and to prevent posterior paralysis in heavy milking sows.
The calcium and phosphorus requirements listed are based on daily feed intakes of 4. If less feed is consumed per day, the percentages of nrc swine 2012 free download and phosphorus may need to be adjusted upward. The ratio of total calcium:total phosphorus should be kept between 1.
A wide calcium:phosphorus ratio reduces phosphorus absorption, especially if the diet is marginal in phosphorus. The ratio is less critical if the diet contains excess phosphorus. When based on digestible phosphorus, the ideal ratio of calcium to digestible phosphorus is between and 2. Most of the phosphorus in cereal grains and oilseed meals is in the form of phytic acid organically bound phosphorus and is poorly available to pigs, whereas the phosphorus in protein sources of animal origin, such as meat meal, meat and bone meal, and fish meal, is in inorganic form and is highly available to pigs.
Even in cereal grains, availability of phosphorus varies. ATTD phosphorus represents the phosphorus digested, and STTD phosphorus is the digestible phosphorus corrected for endogenous phosphorus excretions. Phosphorus supplements such as monocalcium or dicalcium phosphate, defluorinated free photoshop download for windows, and steamed bone meal are excellent sources of highly available phosphorus. These supplements also are good sources of calcium.
Ground limestone also is an excellent source of calcium. Phosphorus is considered a potential environmental pollutant, so many swine producers feed diets with less excess phosphorus than in the past to reduce phosphorus excretion. Supplemental phytase, an enzyme that degrades some of the phytic acid in feedstuffs, is commonly added to diets to further reduce phosphorus excretion. The general recommendation is that dietary calcium and phosphorus can both be reduced by 0.
The recommended level of salt is 0. Animal, fish, and milk byproducts can contribute some of the sodium and chloride requirement. Practical diets contain ample amounts of these minerals from the grain and protein sources, and supplemental sources are not needed. Magnesium oxide supplementation по ссылке been used to prevent cannibalism, but controlled studies do not support this practice.
These minerals are involved in many enzyme systems. Both are necessary for formation of Hgb and, therefore, for prevention of nutritional anemia. Because the amount of iron in milk is very low, suckling pigs should receive supplemental iron, preferably by IM injection of — mg in the form of iron dextran, iron dextrin, or gleptoferron during the first 3 days of life also see Iron Toxicosis in Newborn Pigs Iron Toxicosis in Newborn Pigs.
Giving oral or injectable iron and copper to sows will not increase piglet stores at birth nor will it increase the iron in colostrum and milk sufficiently to prevent anemia in neonatal pigs. High levels of iron in lactation feed results in iron-rich sow feces that pigs can obtain from the pen.
Iron can also be supplied by mixing ferric ammonium citrate with water in nrc swine 2012 free download piglet waterer or by frequently placing nrc swine 2012 free download mixture of iron sulfate and a carrier, such as nrc swine 2012 free download corn, on the nfs shift 2 free download full version for pc of the farrowing stall.
The copper requirement for growing pigs is low 3—6 ppm but higher for sows. The estimated copper requirement of 5 ppm for sows in the previous NRC publication was increased to 10 ppm for gestation and 20 ppm for lactation in the edition.
The action of copper at high levels appears to be independent of, and additive to, the growth-stimulating effect of antibiotics. Copper sulfate at high levels in the diet results in very dark-colored feces. Also, high copper diets result in marked increases in the copper nrc swine 2012 free download of excreted manure.
The thyroid gland uses iodine to produce thyroxine, which affects cell activity and metabolic rate. The iodine requirement of all classes of pigs is 0.
Stabilized iodized salt contains 0. Although essential for normal reproduction and growth, the quantitative requirement for manganese is not well defined.
Zinc is an important trace mineral with many biologic functions. Grain-soybean meal diets must contain supplemental zinc to prevent parakeratosis see Parakeratosis Parakeratosis. Higher levels of zinc may be nrc swine 2012 free download when dietary calcium is excessive, especially in diets typically high in phytic acid such as corn-soybean meal diets. In some instances, high levels of zinc oxide have been reported to reduce the incidence nrc swine 2012 free download severity of postweaning diarrhea.
Responses to zinc oxide and antibiotics seem to be additive nrc swine 2012 free download nature, much like the responses to high copper and antibiotics; however, there is no advantage to including high copper and high zinc in the same diet. Similar to copper, high levels of dietary zinc cause increased zinc content in the excreted manure. For sows, the estimated zinc requirement was increased from 50 ppm in the previous NRC nrc swine 2012 free download to ppm in the edition.
The selenium content of soils and, ultimately, crops is quite nrc swine 2012 free download. In the USA, areas west of the Mississippi River generally contain higher amounts of nrc swine 2012 free download, whereas areas east of the river tend to yield crops deficient in selenium.
Under most practical conditions, 0. This trace mineral is regulated by the FDA, and the maximal amount of nrc swine 2012 free download that can be added to swine diets is 0. This trace mineral, which is a cofactor with insulin, is required by pigs, but the quantitative requirement has not been established.
The Swine NRC: What You Should Know.Nutrient Requirements of Swine, 11th Revised Edition | VetBooks
This reference has guided nutritionists and other professionals in academia and the swine and feed industries in developing and implementing nutritional and feeding programs for swine. The swine industry has undergone considerable changes since the tenth edition was published in and some of the requirements and recommendations set forth at that time are no longer relevant or appropriate. The eleventh revised edition of the Nutrient Requirements of Swine builds on the previous editions published by the National Research Council.
A great deal of new research has been published doanload the last 15 years and there is a large amount of new information for many nutrients. In addition to a thorough and current evaluation of the literature on the energy and nutrient requirements of swine in all stages of life, this volume includes information about feed ingredients from the biofuels industry and other new ingredients, requirements nrc swine 2012 free download digestible phosphorus free movie for pc in hd concentrations of it in feed ingredients, a review of the effects of feed additives and feed processing, and strategies to increase nutrient retention and thus nrc swine 2012 free download fecal and urinary excretions that could contribute karbonn titanium s5 software for pc download environmental pollution.
The tables of feed ingredient composition are significantly updated. Nutrient Requirements of Swine swime a comprehensive review of the most recent information available on swine nutrition and ingredient composition that will allow efficient, profitable, and environmentally conscious swine frfe.
Nrc swine 2012 free download Chapter Skim search tool presents what we’ve algorithmically identified as the most significant single chunk of text within every page in the chapter. You may select key terms to highlight them within pages of each chapter. These materials complement Nutrient Requirements of Swine and permit animal nutritionists, swine nrc swine 2012 free download, feed manufacturers, veterinarians, and students to determine the nutrient requirements of swine at all stages of development.
The computer programs also permit diet evaluation and calculate nutrient excretion. Through Rightslink, frwe may request permission to reprint NAP content in another publication, course pack, secure website, or other media. Rightslink allows you to instantly obtain permission, pay related fees, and print a license directly from the NAP website. The complete terms and conditions of your reuse license can be found in nec license agreement that will be made available to you during the online order process.
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Nrc swine 2012 free download similar items Consensus Study Report. Read Free Online. Free supporting materials are available for this report. Click on the ‘Resources’ tab to view. Suggested Citation National Research Council. Узнать больше Info pages 8. Chapters skim Front Matter i-xviii Summary What is skim?
Links Computer models to determine the nutrient requirements of swine Read Description: The computer models enable the calculation of nutrient requirements of starting and growing-finishing pigs and of sows during gestation and lactation.
The programs also enable the user to examine diet adequacy and to calculate nutrient excretion. The user guide fully explains how to run the computer models on various different types of computers. A series of case studies is designed to http://replace.me/26511.txt users understand the use and application of the computer models.
The RTF version of the case studies tree instructors and others to modify the case studies to suite their individual circumstances. Related Information Download free supporting materials for Nutrient Requirements of Swine including: Computer models to determine the nutrient requirements of swine Excel A user guide to the computer models PDF A series of case studies that are designed to help the user understand the scope and limits of the models PDF The vree studies in a form that can be modified by the user RTF These materials complement Nutrient Requirements of Swine and permit animal nutritionists, swine producers, feed manufacturers, veterinarians, and students to determine the nutrient requirements of swine at all stages of development.
What is an eBook? Why is an eBook better than a PDF? Where do I get eBook читать полностью Front Matter.